Royal albert tea cup dating
It was not until the middle of the 19th century that cake as we know it today (made with extra refined white flour and baking powder instead of yeast) arrived on the scene. The Cassell's New Universal Cookery Book [London, 1894] contains a recipe for layer cake, American (p. Butter-cream frostings (using butter, cream, confectioners [powdered] sugar and flavorings) began replacing traditional boiled icings in first few decades 20th century.
In France, Antonin Careme [1784-1833] is considered THE premier historic chef of the modern pastry/cake world.
From the very earliest items, a large number of French provinces have produced cakes for which they are noted.
In its northeastern Old French dialect from wasel it as borrowed into English in the thirteenth century, where it survived until the seventeenth century." ---An A to Z of Food and Drink, John Ayto [Oxford University Press: Oxford] 2002 (p.
138) "The word 'gateau' crossed the Channel to England in the early 19th century...
Cakes can last much longer, some even improving with age (fruit cake).
Torte is the German word for cake, with similar properties.